1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1. BEV + PHEV cars 2015-2040 as % of global auto market 1.2. Covid-19 impact on electric car sales 1.3. Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2031 1.4. Plug-in EVs and the demand for charging infrastructure 1.5. Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2031 1.6. New charging installations by power class 2015-2031 1.7. Total charging installations by region 2015-2031 1.8. EV charging market value 2015-2031 ($ billion) 1.9. Evaluation of the different charging infrastructure 1.10. Key market players 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. Charging levels 2.2. Basics of electric vehicle charging mechanisms 2.3. How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle? 2.4. The trend towards DC fast charging 2.5. Fleet vehicles requires much higher charging power 2.6. Range and charging power roadmap 2.7. Charging methods 2.8. Charging infrastructure coverage and demand 2.9. Number of public chargers required for plug-in EVs? 2.10. Private versus public charging 3. CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE BY REGION 3.1. Global charging infrastructure installations 3.2. Best-selling plug-in car models in the US 3.3. The status of public charging in United States 3.4. Private and public charging penetration in US 3.5. Best-selling plug-in car models in Europe 3.6. The status of public charging in Europe 3.7. Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2031 3.8. Private and public charging penetration in Europe 3.9. Best-selling plug-in car models in China 3.10. The status of public charging in China 3.11. Private and public charging penetration in China 3.12. The rising demand for fleet charging 4. TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE 4.1. Overview of electric vehicle charging infrastructure standards 4.2. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standard organizations 4.3. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standards: ISO/IEC 4.4. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standards: SAE 4.5. DC charging standard: CCS 4.6. DC charging standard: CHAdeMO 4.7. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure standard in China: GB 4.8. Types of electric vehicle charging plugs 4.9. Electric vehicle charging plugs by type 4.10. Overview of electric vehicle charging standards by region 4.11. Electric vehicle charging systems comparison 4.12. Summary of charging levels and standards in the main regions 4.13. Communication systems for electric vehicle charging 4.14. Communication interfaces 4.15. Communication protocols and standards 5. ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE AND KEY TECHNOLOGIES 5.1. Overview of electric vehicle Charging Infrastructure 5.1.1. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure: technology overview 5.1.2. Different types of electric vehicle charging infrastructure 5.1.3. Architecture of electric vehicle charging infrastructure 5.1.4. Electric vehicle charging technologies by application 5.2. Conductive Charging 5.2.1. Conductive charging technologies by application 5.2.2. AC charging versus DC charging 5.2.3. Conductive charging at Level 1 5.2.4. Conductive charging at Level 2 5.2.5. Conductive charging at Level 3 5.2.6. Residential charging 5.2.7. Workplace charging – an essential complement to residential charging 5.2.8. How workplace charging can help alleviate grid pressure 5.2.9. CHAdeMo is preparing for 900 kW high power charging 5.2.10. Challenges for high power charging 5.2.11. Impacts of fast charging on battery lifespan 5.2.12. Efforts to improve fast charging performance 5.2.13. Intelligent battery management to enable fast charging 5.2.14. Cable cooling to achieve high power charging 5.2.15. Leoni’s liquid cooled cables for fast charging 5.2.16. Tesla adopts liquid-cooled cable for its supercharger 5.2.17. Liquid-cooled connector for ultra fast charging 5.2.18. ITT Cannon’s liquid-cooled high power charging solution 5.2.19. Continental turns electric powertrain into ‘universal charger’ 5.2.20. Summary: DC charging standards and power levels 5.2.21. Off-grid electric vehicle charging 5.2.22. Electrify America deploying solar-powered electric vehicle charging 5.2.23. Off-grid charging without batteries 5.2.24. A single converter for solar-powered charging 5.2.25. AFC Energy presenting hydrogen-powered electric vehicle charging 5.2.26. Mobile charging – a new business model for electric vehicle charging 5.2.27. Mobi – FreeWire’s mobile charger 5.2.28. Modular mobile charger by SparkCharge 5.2.29. Electric vehicle Charge Mobile for Level 2 and DC charging 5.2.30. VW’s mobile charging robots 5.2.31. Power Mobile charging service by NIOPower 5.2.32. Tesla’s Megapack-powered mobile Superchargers 5.2.33. Chargery’s mobile charger on bicycle 5.2.34. How will autonomous EVs refuel? 5.2.35. Autonomous charging: conductive robotic charging 5.2.36. Electrify America to deploy robotic chargers 5.2.37. Volkswagen’s visionary charging robots 5.3. Wireless Charging 5.3.1. An overview of wireless charging 5.3.2. SAE J2954 wireless electric vehicle charging standard 5.3.3. Inductive charging 5.3.4. Magnetic resonance: wireless charging for EVs 5.3.5. Inductive charging of EVs: parked 5.3.6. Inductive charging of EVs: on road 5.3.7. WiTricity goes all-in on wireless charging for EVs 5.3.8. WiTricity’s park-and-charge wireless charging solution 5.3.9. Plugless is selling wireless chargers for EVs 5.3.10. Qualcomm’s Halo wireless electric vehicle charging platform 5.3.11. Dynamic electric vehicle charging demonstrated by Qualcomm 5.3.12. WiTricity acquires Qualcomm’s wireless charging unit 5.3.13. BMW 530e pilots wireless charging 5.3.14. Capacitive charging 5.3.15. Capacitive charging: principle 5.3.16. Capacitive charging: current projects 5.4. Battery Swapping 5.4.1. An overview of battery swapping 5.4.2. The case of Better Place 5.4.3. Battery swapping: Tesla 5.4.4. Battery swapping development in China 5.4.5. Battery swapping: NIO 5.4.6. Battery swapping: BAIC 5.4.7. Battery swapping: Gogoro network 5.5. Charging infrastructure for electric vehicle fleets 5.5.1. The rising population of electric vehicle fleets 5.5.2. Charging infrastructure for electric buses 5.5.3. Charging electric buses: depot versus opportunity charging 5.5.4. Heliox: public transport and heavy-duty vehicle charging 5.5.5. Heliox’s 13 MW charging network for electric buses 5.5.6. SprintCharge: battery-buffered opportunity charging for electric buses 5.5.7. ABB’s smart depot charging solution for large fleets 5.5.8. ABB: opportunity charging for electric buses 5.5.9. ABB’s 600kW TOSA flash-charging for e-buses 5.5.10. Siemens: electric bus charging infrastructure 5.5.11. Daimler Truck opened charging park for commercial EVs 5.5.12. The emergence of ‘Mega chargers’ 5.5.13. CharIN is working on charging standard for commercial electric vehicles 5.5.14. Momentum Dynamics: high-power wireless charging for electric vehicle fleets 5.5.15. Case study: wireless charging for public transit 5.5.16. Electric road systems for electric vehicle charging 5.5.17. Types of electric road systems 5.6. Electric road systems: conductive versus inductive 5.6.1. Electric road systems: Korea 5.6.2. Electric road systems: Sweden 5.6.3. Germany tests its first electric highway for trucks 5.6.4. Electric road systems: market and challenges 6. KEY MARKET PLAYERS 6.1. ChargePoint 6.2. ChargePoint product series 6.3. ChargePoint as a Service 6.4. Tritium – the DC charging solution provider 6.5. Tritium Veefil – the DC fast charger specifications 6.6. Tritium is rolling out its DC high-power chargers 6.7. IONITY’s high-power charging network across Europe 6.8. Electrify America 6.9. Electrify America is extending its charging network 6.10. Electrify America deploying solar-powered electric vehicle charging 6.11. Electrify America to deploy robotic chargers 6.12. EVgo 6.13. Wallbox 6.14. Wallbox’s bi-directional residential electric vehicle charger 6.15. EVbox 6.16. Efacec Electric Mobility: full-range electric vehicle charging solutions 6.17. Efacec’s private and public charging solution 6.18. Efacec’s fast charging solution 6.19. Efacec’s wireless charging solution 6.20. Webasto 6.21. NewMotion 6.22. BP ChargeMaster 6.23. Pod Point 6.24. DBT-CEV 6.25. Green Motion 6.26. Integrating electric vehicle charger in home energy storage 6.27. Green Motion’s urban air mobility charging 6.28. TELD 6.29. StarCharge 6.30. Tesla Supercharger network 6.31. Tesla Destination Charging network 7. VALUE CHAIN AND BUSINESS MODELS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING 7.1. The emergence of electric vehicle charging value chain 7.2. The electric vehicle charging value chain 7.3. Key market players along the electric vehicle charging value chain 7.4. Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: China 7.5. Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: Europe 7.6. Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: US 7.7. Market share of DC fast charging by network operator: US 7.8. The electric vehicle charging value chain 7.9. Business models of charging network operators 7.10. Emerging business models for new services: V2X 7.11. Nissan energy share: vehicle to home/building 7.12. V2H initiative by Nissan 7.13. V2G: Nuvve 7.14. The V2G architecture 7.15. Nuvve targets on electric school buses for V2G 7.16. V2G: OVO Energy 7.17. OVO Energy to advance V2G and second-life batteries 7.18. V2G accelerates battery degradation? 7.19. V2G can extend the longevity of the electric vehicle battery 8. FORECASTS 8.1. Forecast Methodology 8.2. Forecast Assumptions 8.3. Global Car Sales: the Addressable Market 8.4. Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2031 8.5. Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2031 8.6. New car and fleet charging outlets installed 2015-2031 8.7. New charging installations by power class 2015-2031 8.8. EV charging market value 2015-2031 ($ billion) 8.9. Total charging installations by region 2015-2031 8.10. New charging installations by region 2015-2031 8.11. Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2031 8.12. Total private charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2031



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